FREEDOM STRUGGLE-10th Social Science Notes and Question Bank

Chapter-08 History 
FREEDOM STRUGGLE
1.    According to Dr. B. R. Ambedkar political independence was meaningless without social independence. justify this statement
A. 1. The administration of a country look after by our poverty and inequality is still existing.
2.    He carried out a study of the caste system and came
up with a plan to eradicate it.
3.    He started 'Mahad' and 'Kalaram' temple movements
4.    He attended the three round table conferences and gave valuable suggestions
5.    He fought for a separate electoral constituency for untochables
6.    He established an organization 'Bahishkruta hitakarini sabha and two separate partied named swatantra karmika party and Republican party of india.
7.    He published various newapapers like bahiskruta bharata mukanayaka and janata he fougt for untouchables.
8.    He advocated equality in the constitution and gave legal protection against practice of untouchablity.
1.     In the freedom struggle farmers and labour organizations have played a prominent role justify this statement.
1.   During the british rule, farmers in many places revolted against landlords, and european planters.
2.    They refused to grow indigo in champaranya district.
3.    They staged agitations against land tax.
4.    The farmer's problems merged with the non co­operation movement, civil disobedience and quit india movements.
5.    Many protests were organized under the banner of kisan samba which was founded on lefties principles
6.    In maharashtra the farmers protested against low wages.
7.    The labours movement started in calcutta.
8.    People started getting organized to fight for their rights in jute and textile industries and the railways.
2.    Describe the santala tribal revolt can be termed india's first movement.
A. [1]When the permanent land lord system was brought into force by the british, the people of this community become destitutes.
*Their lands went to the land lords.
*The company exploited the decency and peace loving attitude of the santals.
* Enraged by this, the santa's held secret meeting and decided to loot the land lords and paramount citizens.
*As a result the landlords and money lenders ranaway. *The government used the army to stem the revolt and was successful
*Although the revolt by the santalas ended it lent its voice to many similar protests later.
3.     Who were the leaders of Moderates? What were their
demands?
M.G. Ranade, Surendranatha Banarjee, Dadabai Navroji, Gopalakrishna Gokhale
Demands
      Appointments of Indians to high posts.
      Impose import tax on Indian goods and through strengthen the farmers of India.
      Reduction of military expenses.
      Improvement in the educational facilities to Indians
      Forcing the British government to take up studies about poverty in India.
4.     Explain the role of Balagangadhara Tilakin the freedom struggle?
      Tilak declared 'Swaraj is my birth right, I shall have it'.
      He followed extremist ideas to send the British out of India.
      Through religious functions he started to organise people for religious movement.
      He published two news papers Kesari and Marati and through that he inspired the people.
      He was imprisoned for his revolutionary articles and enquiry was instituted against him.
5.     What were the reasons for withdrawing of partition of
Bengal?
      To curb the protest Viceroy Lord Curzon proposed a plan to devide Bengal.
      Extremists opposed the partition of Bengal.
      The British followed 'Divide and Rule policy.
      The people started to protest the partition.
      Swadeshi movement started throughout the country.
      They encouraged the people to use Indian Goods.
      Because of these protest, in 1911 the British government withdrew the declaration of partition of Bengal.
6.     What is the role of the Indian National Congress?
      The INA struggle to arouse patriotic feelings of Indians.
      It published news papers in local languages and started debate on the political problems.
      The people aware of the political situation and its problems.
      INA was able to formulate positive plans of action related to national issues.
      Ultimately it brought independence to India.
7.     Describe Chouri chaura incident?
      Ghandi ji called noncooperation movement in 1920.
      Protest and strikes were witnessed all over the countries.
      The British got fear because of the agitation.
      In 1922, police used their force against peaceful protesters.


      Enraged people tried to enter into police station and set the police station on fire.
      About 22 police were burnt alive inside the police station.
      This incident termed as Chauri chaura incident.
8.     Explain salt Satyagraha?
      Gandhiji submitted a Charter of 11 demands to Viceroy Irwin.
      Irwin did not agree to fulfill the demands.
      Gandhiji started civil disobedience movement in 1930.
      Ghandhiji travelled from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in Surat on foot with his followers.
      They produce salt in the seashore as a symbol of breaking the law. This is known as Dandi March.
      Thousands of Indians imprisoned.
      This incident is called as Civil disobedience movement.
9.     Explain the contributions of Nehru after becoming Prime Minister?
      Nehru was the architect of industrialization and modern India.
      Nehru was worked along with Sardar Vallabhabai Patel to bring together all the princely states and merge with Indian union.
      He laid foundation for democracy by reorganization of the states on the basis of language.
      He introduced mixed type of economy which had both capitalism and socialism.
      He believed that the growth of the nation possible through industrialization.
      He dreamt that development of India possible through five year plans.
      He advocated NonAlignment Movement.
      Through Panchasheela principles he implements the formula of peace and harmony.
10.Analyze the theory of wealth drain?
      This theory explained by Dadabai Navroji.
      He placed facts and figures in front of the people about the drain of Indian wealth to England.
      He explained about the transfer of Indian wealth to England.
      He maintained that encouraging imports and reducing exports created a situation unfavourable to India.
      A lot of wealth was flowing into England through wages, pension, and administrativeexpenses.
11. Name the revolutionaries in the freedom struggle. Which path they followed to bring the freedom?
I.       D.Savarkar, Aurbindo Ghosh, Shyam Krishnaverma, Ras Bihari Ghose, Madem Cama, Khudiram Bose, Ramprasad Bismil, Bhagath Singh, and Chandrashekar Azad.
The path they followed to bring the freedom are
      The revolutionaries dreamt of a totally free India.
      The believed that the British could be thrown out of India only by violent means.
      They started establishing their secret branches in India and abroad.
      They started to give trainings to these revolutionaries.
     
14. Explain the course of Quit India movement?

They used bombs and fires to achieve their objectives.
      The Kripp's Mission was appointed by the British to India for peace talks.
      Kripp's commission suggested some provisions to the Indians.
      These suggestions were not acceptable by the Congress.
      On 8th Aug. 1942, the Congress started Quit India Movement.
      Ghandiji gave call to 'Do or Die'.
      So Ghandiji and other leaders were arrested .
      Jayaprakash Naraya a new leader assumed the leadership of the movement.
      He collected funds and gave trainings.
1.     Give an account of the achievements of Subhash Chandra Bose in the independence struggle.
      Because of the misunderstanding Subhash Chandra Bose left Congress and established a new party 'Forward Block.
      The party aimed to bring progressive, fast changes.
      He opposed war preparation of the British and participation of India in World war.
      He was arrested and kept in house arrest.
      But escaped from house arrest and left for Germany.
      He gained the support of Hitler and Mussolini.
      He tried to establish an army with the help of Indian criminals in Germany.
      He broadcasted his speeches through Azad Hind Radio.
      He joined hand with Ras Bihari Bose. He also established a Indian military at Tokyo and named it as Indian National Army.
      Subhash Chandra Bose took the leadership of INA.
      He gave the call Delhi chalo.
      He urged the Indians "Give me blood, I will give you freedom".
      The army hoisted the flag in Andaman Nicobar.
      Later they began an armed attack on Burma.
      Fierce battle was took place between British and INA soldiers.
2.     Describe the tribal s in the Indian freedom struggle?
      The tax and forest tax implemented by the British East India Company on tribal's provoke the revolt
        In the tribal movement, Santalas and Mundas movement are prominent one.
        In Karnatakan, Hadagali Hunters revolution is noteworthy.
      The Santala community became destitute when The British imposed permanent land lord system.
      Enraged Santalas held secret meetings and decided to loot the landlords and prominent citizens.
      The rioters killed their enemies.
      The land lords and moneylenders ran away.
      The British used the army to stem the revolt.
3.     Describe the farmers and labours role in the Indian freedom struggle?
      The role of the farmers and labours role in the Indian freedom struggle played and major role.
      Farmers revolted against land lords and European planters.
      The Telangana farmer's revolt challenged the Andra Reddy landlords and the Nizam Razakars.
      Bengli farmers revolted against the exploitation by landlords.
      The labours protested to increase wage.
      The railway porters demanded for high salary.
      The printers union and Madras Labourers Union established.
4.     Describe the role of Dr.B.R.Ambedkar in bringing unity among untouchables.
      He strongly believed that political independence is meaningless without social independence.
      He studied the caste system and tried to eradicate that.
      He started Mahad and Kalaram temple movements to provide basic facilities.
      The demand for separate constituency for untouchables created misunderstanding between Ghandiji and Ambedkar.
      He published newspapers like Prabuddha Bharata, Janata, Mookanayaka, Bahishkrita Bharata.
5.     Division of India is inevitable. Justify the statement?
      Throughout the freedom struggle, the Congress supported a united India.
      The Muslim League kept on demanding a separate nation for the Muslims.
      In the Lahore session in 1940, Jinnah declared that Hindus and Muslims could never form the country.
      After the II world war Labour party came to power in Britain, sent a Cabinet6 Mission to have talk with India about self rule.
      It suggested federal form Constitution preparation Assembly and establishment of an intrim national Government in India.
      The Muslim League opposed this and observes 16thAug 1946 as 'Direct Action Day, pressing the importance of a separate nation.
      Communal riots took place.
      Mount Batten had talk with Ghandhiji and Jinnah and plan to divide India.
      Acc. To that on 15th Aug. 1947, two nations emerged.
6.     Describe Jal.anwallah Bagh Massacre?
      People protested Rowlatt Act as it banned public meetings. And it became violent.
      The protesters had decided to assemble at Jalianwallah Bagh Massacre.
      About 20000 protesters had assembled in this.
      General Dyer arrived to the place along with his army and attacked from all the directions.
      In this massacre about 379 people died and thousands suffered serious injury.
1.     The Indian National congress was established in the
year........
a.) 1884 A.D                       b) 1885 A.D
c)1886 A.D                         d) 1883 A.D
Ans: 1885 A.D
2.     Founder of the Indian National congress was......
a) Jawaharlal Nehru          b) W.C. Banerji
c) A.O. Hume                     d) Jinnah
Ans: A.O. Hume
3.        The profounder of Wealth Drain theory was.....
a.      Balagangadhara Tilak
b.      Mahadeva Govinda Ranade
c.       Gopalakrishna Gokhale
d.      Dadabai Navroji Ans: Dadabai Navvroji
4.        The partition of Bengal took place in the year...
a. 1885 A.D                       b. 1901 A.D
c. 1905 A.D                       d. 1911 A.D
Ans: 1905 A.D
5.        The British Government withdrew the declaration of
parti tion of Bengal in the year................
a. 1901 A.D                       b. 1905 A.D
c. 1906 A.D                                        d. 1911 A.D
Ans: 1911.A.D
6.        Tilak started a news paper in Marathi Language called
a. Maratha                         b. Samvada Kaumudi
c. Sathyarthaprakasha     d. Kesari
Ans: Kesari
7.        Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it was declared
by.......
a. Bipin chandrapal                          b.Balagangadhara Tilak
c. Lalalajapath roy                            d. Mathilala Nehru
Ans:Balagangadhara Tilak
9.        Swaraj party was established by......
a) Motilal Nehru & Chitraranjan das
c)      Mahammada Ali jinna & Shoukat Ali
d)      Bhagat Singh Chandrashekar Azad.
Ans: Motilal Nehru chitharanjan das
10.     The Lahore session of the Indian National Congress that
took place in 1929 was presided by.......
a) Mahatma Gandhi                 b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Sardar Vallabhabai patel d) Motilal Nehru Ans: Jawaharlal Nehru
11.     In the quit India movement Gandhiji gave a call to the
Indians as..........
a) Do or Die                       b) Swaraj     is my birth right
c) Vimukti Divas                d) All the     above
Ans: 'Do or Die'
12.     Subhaschandra Bose was populary known as ...
a) Mahatma                       b)Netaji
c)Bapooji                           d)chacha
Ans: Netaji
13.     Subhaschandra Bose established an Army caled  
a) Indian National Army   b) Swaraj Party
c) Indian Naitonal congress      d) Socialistic party
Ans: Indian National Army.
14. The person who established 'Swatantra Karmika party was     
a) Jawaharla Nehru b) Mahatma Gandhi c) B.R.Ambedkar d) Vallabhabai Patel Ans: B.R.Ambedkar.
15.     The person who was called 'the iron man of India
was...
a. Sardar Vallababai patel b. Mahatma Gandhi c. B.R. Ambedkar            d. Sardar Vallabai Patel
Ans: c) Sardar Vallabai Patel
1.    What was the role of moderates for freedom struggle?
Ans: * They used to place their requests and appeals before the Government within the constitutional frame work
*      They gave more importance to political Education.
*      They put demand for the reduction of military expenses.
*      They recommended good education for Indians.
*      Forcing the British Government to take up studies about
poverty in the country.
* They placed before the people 'the facts and figures' about the drain of Indian wealth into England.
*      The Age of Moderate is also called the Age of Generous
Nationalism.
2.     What was the role of extremists to increase the intensity of freedom struggle?
Ans: * Those who criticized the moderate thinking propogated extremist ideas.
*      opposed, the partition of Bengal throughout the country.
*      They encouraged the people to use Indian goods.
*      Extremists maintained that good administration cannot
be a substitute for Independence.
*      Bala gangadhar Tilk declared the "Swaraj is my bith right
and I shall have it'
*      Extremist's aim was to get complete Independence.
*      Through religious functions they started organizing people for a freedom movement.
*      Tilak utilized his kesari in Marathi and 'Marathi.
newspaper in English for freedom struggle.
3.     Give an account of the achievements of Subhaschandra
Bose in the Independence struggle.
Ans: As a parallel to the peaceful struggle of Gandhiji Subhas Chandra Bose was engaged in the attempt to organize Indian settled abroad and equip them for fighting against the British.
*      Jawaharla Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose established
the Congress Socialistic party.
*      Netaji left the Congress and established a separate party
called forward Block.
*      He gained the support of the Germany dictator Hitler. He
tired to estsablish an army with the help of Indian war criminals in Germany.
*      With the help of Ras Behari, Bose established INA.
*     There was a ladies wing in the INA named Jhansi Regi
ment. Captain Lakshmi was the commandant of this regi ment.
*     He urged the Indians "Give me blood I will give you free
dom. Subhaschandra Bose gave the call "Delhi Chalo"
4.     Explain the role of Gandhiji for freedom Struggle?
Ans: * Gandhiji made use of Indirect protests nonviolence and Satyagraha as the main instruments for the freedom struggle.
*     He protested against Rowlatt Act by Satyagraha.
*     Participation of Muslims, he encouraged khilafat movement.
*     Gandhiji gave a call for a noncooperation movement
against the British.
*     He gave a call to the British Quit India Movement.
*     He gave a call for Swadeshi movement.
5.     Decribe nonco operation movement.
Ans: * In the year 1920, Gandhiji gave a call for a nonco operation movement against the British.
*     Students supported his call by abstaining from schools
and colleges. Lawyers remained away from courts. Indian dignitaries returned all the awards returned
*     During this period there was a stiff opposition to the visit
of the British prince. There were widespread agitations against the visit throughout the country.
*     In the year 1922, police used their force against peaceful
protestors.
* The angry protestors set the police station on fire police were burnt alive inside the station.
*     The British government considered Gandhiji responsbile
for the violent event.
*     Nehru and C.R. Das established 'Swaraj party in 1922.
*     During this time Lala Lajpat roy who was the leader of the
movement died after being injured in police caning.
6.     Describe the civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans: * Gandhiji, after assuming the leadership of civil dis obedience movement, submitted a charter of demands to Viceroy Irwin. But Irwin did not consider Gandhiji's de mands.
*     Gandhiji with his followers started to produce salt in the
seashore. In this manner he stared civil disobedience.
*     Vijayalakshmi pandit, Kamala Nehru, Vallabai patel, Ra
jagopalachari, Babu Rajendra Prasad and thousands of others who participated in the civil disobedience movement were arrested.
*     This agitation spread to many parts of the country.
7.     Describe the Quit India Movement.
A: * Kripps commission suggestions were not acceptable to congress on the 8th of August 1942 the congress started Quit India Movement.
*     Gandhiji gave a call to the Indians to 'Do or Die'.
*      Freedom fighters were imprisoned by the British.
*      Most of the Congress leaders were in jail, organizations
other than the congress came into the limelight.
*      Jayaprakash Narayana assumed leadership of the move
ment.
*      The Socialists implemented their plans through a group
titled 'The freedom struggle front"
*      Through that organization, they imparted training to
workers.
*      The Muslim league did not participate in this movement