THE ADVENT OF EUROPEANS TO INDIA
Text Book Question and Answers
Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
1. The European trade was monopolized by portugese in India in the 17th Century.
2. The first Carnatic war was fought between British and French
3. In the battle of Wandiwash British Commander Sir Iyre coot was defeated the French.
4. In the Battle of Plassey Robert Clive assumed the leadership of the English army.
5. Dual Government was brought by Robert Clive in Bengal.
Answer the following questions after discussing them in groups:
1. How was the European trade conducted with India in the beginning?
• In the middle ages, trade between India and Europe was being conducted via the Persian Gulf, red sea and the routes to the north west of India.
• Italy was the center for distribution of Indian spice through its rich cities like Vennis, Geneva, Milan and the Florence
2. “Scientific developments led to sea voyages”. Justify this statement.
• The new scientific instruments like the compass, the gunpowder, naval equipments and maps helped the sailors in their sea voyage.
• The stories that were being told about the wealth of the eastern nations.
• The eagerness of missionaries for proselytisation was source of inspiration.
• This promoted to find out alternative routes to India.
3. Explain, how the Carnatic wars helped the British to settle down firmly in India.
• During the first carnatic war the english got back Madras from Franch on agreement
• During the second carnatic war there was a struggle for the position of Nizam of Hydrabad and the Nawab of carnatic Robert clive attacked Arcot and seized Thiruchinapalli
• During the third carnatic war when the Franch tried to capture St. George fort and attack Madras, they were defeated by the English at Wandiwash. This war ended the French influrnce in India.
4. What are the results of the battle of Plassey?
• In 1757 June 23,
• Rober Clive defeated Siraj-ud-daula
• Mir Jafar was nominated as the Nawab of Bengal.
• The British in return got the Zamindari right over the 24 paraganas and became pwoerful.
5. Describe the system of Dual Government.
• Robert Clive introduced the Dual government in Bengal in 1765.
• Due to the Diwani rights the English were collecting the land revenue.
• Administration, importing of justice and other administrative functions were carried on by the navabs.
Additional Question and Answers
Choose the correct answer and write.
1. The Countries of Europe which encouraged sailors to dis cover new regions.
a) Sapin and Italy b) Portugal & Britain c) Spain and Portugal d) Britain and France.
2. The following mughal Emperor granted some villages near Calcutta to the British.
a) Jahangir b) Bahadur Shah II c) Babur d) Furuk Siyyar
3. The Mughal Emperor who gave the right of Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the British East India Company was
A) Furuk Siyyar B) Shah Alam C) Aurangzeb D) Jahangir.
4. The main cause for the Second Carnatic War was
a) rivalry between native rulers for the throne
b) interference of the English and the French in the politics of the native rulers
c) Dupleix extending his support to obtain the release of Chanda Saheb
d) None of the above.
5. SirajUdDanla was the nawab of
a) Bengal b) Madras c) Mysuru d) Karnataka
6. The Mediterranean and European trade was monopolized by __________during the Middle Ages.
a) England b) Portugal c) France d) Italy.
7. The battle of plassey was fought in
a) 1857 b) 1758 c) 1757 d) 1775
8. In Bengal province the Diwani right to the British was conceded by
a) Shah Alam b) jahangir c) Furuk Siyyar d) Bahadur Shah II
9. The English army commander in the battle of wandi vash
a) Dupleix b) Sir Eyre Coote c) Robert clive d) Lord wellesly
10. The British leader in the battle of plassey
a) Sir Eyre Coote b) Robert Clive c) Lord wellesly d) Lord Dallhousie
11. The Dual government in Bengal was introduced by
a) SirajudDaulah b) Duplei c) Robert clive d) Mir Jaffar
12. The English East India Company got the zamindari of from Mir Jafar for making him the Nawab of Bengal.
A) 24 Paraganas B) Burdwan C) Calcutta D) Midnapur.
13. The nawab of Bengal after Mir Jafar
a) Shah Alam b) ShrujaudDaula c) Mir Qasim d) SirajudDaula
14. Vascodagama reached this place in India.
a) Konanur b) Calicut c) Mahe d) Cochin
15. The Nawab of Carnatic who was used as a pawn by the British in their fight against the French was
A) Anwar-ud-din B) Mir Qasim C) Muhammad Ali D) Hyder Ali.
16. First Indian province occupied by British.
a) Madras b) Calcutta c) Bengal d) Karnataka
17. The British defeated the combined armies of_____________at the Battle ofBuxar in 1764.
a) the Marathas, Hyderabad and Carnatic
b) the French, the Dutch and the Portuguese
c) Mir Qasim, Shah Alam and Shuja-ud-daula
d) Bengal, Oudh and Carnatic.
18. Robert clive was appointed as companys governor
a) 1765 b) 1756 c) 1757 d) 1675
19. The fall of Constantinople resulted in
a) Occupation of Istanbul by Ottoman Turks .
b) Closure of the land route between the east and the west
c) Setting up of new trading centers
d) Discovery of a new land route.
20. The Portuguese monopoly over Indian trade ended with the arrival of
A) the English and the French B) the Dutch and the English
C) the English and the Germans D)the Dutch and the French.
21. In the tripple alliance the nawab of Oudh was
a) Shah Alam b) Mir Jaffar c) Mir Khasim d)Suja-ud-Daula
22. According to the agreement made after the first carnatic war french returned the following place to the British.
a) Calcutta b) Mahe c) Madras d) Bengal
23. Mediterraean and Eropean trade were under the monopoly of
a) Arabs b) French c) England d) Italy.
24. 'Diwani' means
a) the right to issue passes for free movement.
b) the power to rule the state.
c) the power to collect revenue.
d) the power to look after the administration.
25. He brought victory to the British in the Battle of Buxar.
a) Robert Clive b) Dupleix c) Wellesly d) Warren Hastings
26. The third carnatic war was fought at
a) Buxar b) Wandiwash c) Plassey d) Arcot
27. During the Middle Ages, the_________controlled the Asian trade with Europe.
a)Turks b) Arabs c) Chinese d) Indians.
28. In 1756 Siraj-ud-Daula occupied thid fort
a) St. David b) Fort william c) St. George d) Red fort.
29. India had trade links with Europe by
a) land and air b) land and sea c) sea and air d) air and railway
30. Vasco-da-gama reached this place in India in 1498
A) Mahe B) Calicut C) Cochin D) Cannanor
31. The Mugal emperor during the Battle of Buxar was
a) Shuja-ud –Daula b) Mir Jafar c) Shah Alam II d) Anwaruddin
32. 23rd of June 1757 is an important day in the expansion of British power in India because.
a) Mir Jafar was defeated.
b) Mir Qasim was dethroned.
c) They estabished their trading center in India
d) Bengal came under the British
33. The historic event that took place in 1453 A.D. was
a) Constantinople was named as Istanbul
b) A new sea route to India was discovered
c) New devices were invented to encourage voyages
d) Ottoman Turks occupied Constantinople.
34. The English requested Nawab Anwaruddin to help them regain Madras, because Madras was captured by_____
a) Dupleix b) shah Alam II c) Siraj-ud-daula d) Hector Munro
35. The French supported the claims of__________for the throne of Arcot.
A) NasirJung B) Anwar-ud-din C) Chanda Saheb D) Salabat Jung.
36. Which right was obtained from Nawab of Bengal through Dual Government of Robert Clive?
a) Diwani b) Zamindari c) Judgement d) administration
37. The confliet between the French and the British continued till
a) 1757 A.D. b) 1755 A.D. c) 1754 A.D. d) 1765 A.D.
38. Which city acted as a distribution centre for the spices obtained from India?
a) France b) England c) Italy d) Portugal
39. The Portuguese navigator who reached India in 1498 A.D. was
A) Vasco-da-Gama B) Columbus C) Magellan D) Albuquerque.
40. Europeam nations tried to look for alternative trade routes through
a) atlantic ocean b) Indian ocean c) Pacific ocean d) Arabian sea
41. Calcutta, Madras and Bombay became the administrative centres of the British and were called
A) Provinces B) Factories C) Capital cities D) Presidencies.
42. Sir Eyre Coote defeated the French at
A) Wandiwash B) Rajamundry C) Arcot D) Trichy
Fill in the blanks.
1. British extended their sway even in Madras and Bombay
2. The rise of local chieffience and paligars that a moghul empire declined
3. The British built St. George at Madras.
4. The French defeated Nasir Jung, the Nizam of Hydrabad, who was a supporter of the British
5. Initially the Europeans had the trade with India for Mutual benefits.
6. The Battle of plassey was took place between Robert Clive and Siraj-ud-daula in 1757
7. Shah Alam granted Diwani Right to English
Answer in a sentence:
1. Who Discoered Sea route to India?
2. Which Indian commodities were in great demand in Europe?
Indian Spices, Pepper, Cinnamon, Cardamon ginger etc.
3. During 1453 A.D. the land route between the east and the west was closed. Why?
The Ottoman Turks occupied Constantinople in 1453 A.D. and closed the land route between the East and the West.
4. Through which route the trade between Asian countries & Europe was carried during the middle ages?
Via the Persian gulf the Red sea & through the North western region of India.
5. Name the Europeans who came to India for trade.
Which were the four European countries that established colonies in India?
The Portuguese, the Dutch, the English and the French were the Europeans who came to India for trade and established colonies.
6. Which scientific instruments helped the sailors in their sea voyage?
The compass, gun powder, naval equipment's, maps ets.
7. Which country had the monopoly over the Arabian sea?
8. Which countries of Europe were searching for a new route to the east? Why?
Why did the Western European nations look for alternative trade routes through the Atlantic Ocean?
9. Italy, through its rich cities, acted as a distribution centre for the spices obtained from India. In order to break the Italian monopoly over eastern trade, the Western European countries tried to look for an alternative trade route to the east through the Atlantic Ocean.
10. Through which Italian cities spices were distributed?
Vinice, Milan and Florance
11. Whose permission did the British obtain to trade in India?
Native chiefs and moghal emperor.
12. What was the main cause for the First Carnatic War?
The main reason for the First Carnatic War was the Anglo-French rivalry. The Nawab of Carnatic, Anwar-ud-din, was used as a pawn by the British in this war.
13. What was the result of the First Carnatic War?
The French handed Madras, which it had captured, back to the English.
14. Which britishfort was captured by the French?
15. Who controlled the commercial activities of Asia during the Middle Ages?
The Arabs controlled the commercial activities of Asia during the Middle Ages.
16. Which were the places Mir Khasim granted to the British?
Regions of Burdwan, midnapur and Chittagong.
17. Who was the carnatic nawab supported the French?
18. Name some of the rulers who fought against the British.
Siraj-ud-daula, Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan were some of the rulers who fought against the British.
19. Which were the trading centers of British east India Company?
Madras, Calcutta and Bombay
20. What was the chief motivating factor for the Europeans to search for an alternative route to India?
The capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 A.D. and the blocking of the trade route between Europe and India was the chief motivating factor for the Europeans to search for an alternative route to India.
21. The rise of which native states led the fall of Mughal Empire?
Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad and the Maratha province.
22. Who was the British commander defeated the french? in third carnatic war?
Sir Eyre Coote.
23. Who was Eyre Coote?
Sir Eyre Coote was the commander of the English army in the battle of Wandiwash.
24. To which European countries were the Indian spices exported to?
Greek and Roman empires.
25. Name the fishing villages that became the British administrative centers?
Madras, Calcutta and Bombay
26. What is Diwani?
Diwani is the right to collect land revenue.
27. Who granted the English Company the right of Diwani?
The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam granted the English Company the right of Diwani or the power to collect revenue from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
28. Why the British did built its own army?
Because to protect their trade and to strengthen them
29. Why did the Portuguese trade monopoly over the Arabian Sea decline?
The Portuguese trade monopoly over the Arabian Sea declined due to the arrival of the Dutch and the English during the 17th century into Indian trade.
30. Why did the British and French interfered in the politics of the native rulers?
Because to establish their supremacy in India
31. What is meant by monopoly?
The right possessed solely by an individual or organization to buy or sell in a place is called monopoly.
32. How the British traders did became the masters of the empire?
By the might of their army and their political acumen and cunningnes
33. Between whom was the First Carnatic War fought?
The First Carnatic War was fought between the British and the French.
34. Who was responsible for the creation of British
35. Who were the participants in the battle of Wand wash?
The English under Sir Eyre Coote and the French were the participants in the battle of Wand wash
36. When did Robert Clive returned to England again?
37. What was the dream of Dupleix?
His dream was to establish French Supremacy over India.
38. When and between whom was the Battle of Plassey fought?
The battle of Plassey was fought in 1757, between the Nawab of Bengal Siraj-ud-daula and the British army led by Robert Clive.
39. What was the benefit gained by the English agter the Battle of Plassey?
Robert Clive earned lot of wealth both for himself and the east India Company.
40. Whom did the British nominate the Nawab of Bengal after the battle of Plassey?
The British nominated Mir Jafar the Nawab of Bengal after the battle of Plassey.
41. Who gave zamindari rights over 24 Paraganas to the English?
Mir Jafar, the Nawab of Bengal, gave zamindari rights over 24 Paraganas to the English
42. Why did missionaries promote to find alternative route to India?
The missionaries wanted to proselytise (convert) Indians into Christianity.
43. Who was appointed Nawab of Bengal in place of Mir Jafar?
Mir Qasim was appointed Nawab of Bengal in place of Mir Jafar.
44. Why did the French recall the Dupleix?
Because the Dupleix was the desired to have peace.
45. What attracted the Europeans towards India?
Europeans were attracted by the information of Indians wealth.
Answer in 2 or 3 Sentence:
1. Describe the system of Dual Government.
· British collected land revenue.
· administration imparting of justice and other administration function were carried on by the Nawab.
2. What factor inspired to look for alternative trade routes to India?
· The new scientific instruments like the compass, gun powder, naval equipments maps etc
· The stories that were being told about the wealth of the Eastern nations.
· The eagerness of the missionaries for proselytization.
· Ottaman turks captured constantinople which is the only available route to India
3. What are the results of battle of plassey?
· Mir Jaffar become the nawab of Bengal.
· The British got zamindari right over the 24 paragana.
· The British gained control over the province of Bengal.
4. Why was Mir Qasim removed as Nawab of Bengal? Who replaced him as the Nawab?
As Mir Qasim tried to free himself from the hold of the British, he was removed. Mir Jafar was once again appointed the Nawab in his place.
5. When and between whom was the Battle of Buxar fought?
The Battle of Buxar was fought in 1764 between the British and the confederate army of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam, the Nawab of Oudh Shuja-ud-daula and Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal
6. What were the results of the battle of Buxar?
· The English acquired the provinces of Bihar, Orissa and Bengal.
· The moghal emperor, shah Alam conceded the Diwani rights to the British.
· Robert clive introduced Dual Government in Bengal.
7. Why did the British appoint Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal?
Mir Jafar was nominated as the Nawab of Bengal by the English. But, Mir Jafar started consolidating his position. Hence, the British removed him and appointed Mir Qasim as the Nawab
8. Explain First carnatic war?
The war was between french and British in 1746-1748 A.D. Nawab Anwaruddin used as a pawn by the British. French captured Madras from British But accarding to agreement French return back Madras to British. This was called to be frist carnatic war
9. How did the British make Calcutta, Bombay and Madras their important centres in India?
How did the British extend their sway in India?
The British obtained permission for their trading activities from the local kings and chieftains. The Mughal Emperor Furuk Siyyar granted some villages near Calcutta to them. Gradually the British extended their sway even in Madras and Mumbai. They built forts around these centres, built factories (warehouses) and developed them as trading and administrative centres
10. Why was the Battle of Buxar fought? Name the other rulers who supported Mir Qasim?
When Mir Qasim tried to free himself from the hold of the British, he was removed and Mir Jafar was installed in his place as a Nawab.
The Moghal Emperor shah Alam and Nawab of oudh, shuja-ud-Daula also supported Mir Qasim
11. How did the British establish control over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa through dual government?
As a result of victory in the battle of Buxar, Robert Clive acquired the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam conceded the Diwani rights to the British. Subsequently Robert Clive introduced dual government in Bengal. As a result, the British got the diwani or the right to collect revenue, while the administration was put in the hands of the Nawab. They thus established control over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
12. How did the Mughal Empire decline?
The first half of the 18th century marked the decline of the Mughal Empire. It declined due to the rise of local chiefs and palegars. Important among them were Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad and Marathas. The empire had become non-existent and these states acknowledged the suzerainty of the Mughal Emperor only in name.
13. Why did the native kingdoms seek British military help?
The British in India built its own army to protect its trade. The small native rulers, who freed themselves from the hold of Delhi, sought the assistance of the army of the British Company.
14. How did the hyderabad come into the control of the French
Soon after the death of Nizam of Hydrabad, Nasir Jung and Musaffer Jung were tried to became the Nizam of Hydrabad
The French Governar General Dupleix helped the musaffer Jung and defeated Nasir Jung, Who was supported by Engish
As a result the Hydrabad came into the control of the French.
15. What were the results of the Third Carnatic war?
(a) The French lost their power in India, (b) The British returned to the French most of the places they had won. (c) The French were not allowed to build forts there and could use these places only as trade centres.
16. Why did English sent back Robert Clive to India?
The Englsih East India Company was experienced huge losses.
To regain English status in India.
17. Describe briefly the black Hole tragedy.
In 1756 Siraj-ud-Daula occupied Qasim Bazar and St. David occupied and lodged 146 British Soldiers in a small room (18ft x 18ft). The very next day 123 were died due to the suffocation of heat in room this came to be known as the ‘Black Hole tragedy’
18. Whom did the British and French support during second carnatic war?
The British, under the leadership of Robert Clive, Supported Anwaruddin. In the same manner, the French, under the leadership of Dupleix, supported chanda sahib.
Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each.
1. What are the causes and results for the battle of Buxar?
· MirJafar opposed the British. The British removed him and appointed MirQasim.
· The confederate army of the Mughul emperor Shah Alam, Navab of Audh, ShujaUdDaula and MirQasim fought against the British army in 1764.
· The confederate armies were defeated.
· The English acquired the provinces of Bihar Orissa, and Bengal.
· The Mughul emperor Shah Alam conceded the Diwani rights to the British.
· Robert Clive introduced Dual government.
2. Write a note on Robert Clive.
Robert Clive joined the English East India Company as a clerk. He played a significant role in the British victory in the Carnatic wars and later in the Battle of Plassey in Bengal. He also made a huge fortune after this victory. He returned to England with this wealth. After Clive's departure to England, the East India Company incurred huge losses. The British government was forced to send him back to India as a General. Clive brought victory to the British in the Battle of Buxar and obtained the Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. He was later appointed as the Governor of Bengal. Robert Clive laid the foundation of the British Empire in India.
3. Why Europeans did discover new sea routes to India?
· In the middle ages, trade between India and Europe was being conducted via the Persian Gulf, red sea and the routes to the north west of India.
· The commercial activity of Asia was being controlled by the Arabs.
· Mediterranean and European trade were under the monopoly of Italy.
· By 1400 this trade proved to be immensely profitable.
4. How did the English gain monopoly over trade in India?
The Portuguese enjoyed trade monopoly over the Arabian Sea till the 17th century. With the arrival of the Dutch and the English in India, Portuguese monopoly started declining. The British obtained permission for trade from the native chiefs and the Mughal Emperor. During these early days, the British fought with other European countries to gain monopoly over trade. By the early part of the 17th century,, the British were able to overcome the Portuguese in these conflicts. Towards the end of the 18th century they were successful even against the Dutch. They thus gained monopoly over trade in India.
5. What are the results of 3rd Carnatic war?
· The agreement was made that the British handed over to the French most of what was won.
· The French were not permitted to build forts and to protect them.
· Those places had to remain only as trade centers.
6. How did the British and the French come into conflict in the Deccan and Carnatic? What was the result?
What were the causes for the Second Carnatic War?
There was a conflict over succession to the position of the Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of Carnatic. The British under Robert Clive and the French under Dupleix supported the claims of rival princes. The British, under the leadership of Robert Clive, supported Anwaruddin, whereas the French under Dupleix supported Chanda Sahib. In the war that ensued, Robert Clive attacked Arcot and surrounded Tiruchinapalli. Chanda Sahib died in the battle. Due to this, Carnatic region fell indirectly into the hands of the British. The French defeated Nasir Jung of Hyderabad, who was a supporter of the British. As a result, Hyderabad came under the control of the French. This war is called the Second Carnatic War.
7. What made the British to change the Nawabs of Bengal?
When Siraj-Ud-Daula opposed the British they deafeated and killed him in the Battle of plassey and coronated Mir Jafar the Nawab of the Bengal. When Mir Jagar Started consolidating his position, the British removed him and appointed Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal.
When Mir Qasim tried to free himself from the hold of the British, he was removed. Later, the Eglish inducted Mir Jafar again as the Nawab with certain condition.
8. Who was Dupleix?
Write a note on Dupleix.
Dupleix was the Governor General of the French possessions in India. He dreamt of establishing French supremacy over India. He entered into pacts with native rulers and started the practice of providing military help to the local rulers in exchange for trade concessions and territorial gains. He posed a great challenge to the establishment of British supremacy. He played a significant role in the battle of Madras of 1746, in which he was successful. The conflict between the French and the British continued till 1754. Subsequently, the French government, desiring peace, recalled Dupleix.
9. Describe the struggle for power in India between the English and the French.
Both the English and the French came to India for trade but the internal situation here was so favourable that they wanted to exploit it to build their empires. When dispute arose in the Deccan for the position of Nawab of Carnatic and Nizam of Hyderabad, the English and the French supported their candidates. The British under the leadership of Robert Clive, supported Anwaruddin, whereas the French under Dupleix supported Chanda Sahib. In the war that ensued, Robert Clive attacked Arcot and surrounded Tiruchinapalli. Chanda Sahib died in the battle. Due to this, Carnatic region fell indirectly into the hands of the British. The French defeated Nasir Jung of Hyderabad, who was a supporter of the British. As a result, Hyderabad came under the control of the French.
In the Third Carnatic War, the French were defeated at the battle of Wandiwash and the English captured all their possessions in India. Though the treaty restored these possessions to them, the French ceased to be a political power in India.
Point to Remember:
a) Trade was carried on by land route through the city of constantinople
b) In 1453 A.D., the Ottaman Turks occupied Constantinople, which made it necessary to explore new sea routes to India.
c) Portugal was the first country to launch voyages across the sea.
d) The Portuguese Navigator, Vasco-da-Gama reached the coast of Calicut in 1498 A.D.
e) The Dutch East India Company established trade centers in India in 1605 A.D.
f) The French Eash India Company was established in 1664 A.D.
g) Dupieix was the first French Governor in India.
h) The carnatic wars reduced the Frenceh from being a major contender of the war. The French lost the battles, while the English were victorious.
i) The English army under Robert Clive met the Nawab at Plassey on 23rd June 1757 A.D.
j) The English commander defeated the combined forces of Mir Kasim, Sirajud-duula and Shah Alam II at Buxar in 1764 A.D.
k) In 1765 A.D. Robert Clive became the governor of the East India Company and introduced the Dual Government in Bengal.
a) 1453 A.D.: Constanttinople took over by Ottaman Iurks.
b) 1498 A.D.: Portugese navigator Vasco-da-Gama came to India.
c) 1600 A.D.: The East India Company was established in England.
d) 1602 A.D.: United East India Company was established in Netherland.
e) 1619 A.D.: The Moghul Emperor, Jehangir, gave permission to the East India Company to carry on trade in Surat on the west coast, and Hoogly on the east coast of India.
f) 1639 A.D.: The British established their ware house at Madras.
g) 1664 A.D.: The French East India Company was established at France
h) 1742 A.D.: Dupleix was appointed as first french governor geneal in India
i) 1746 A.D.: Battle of Madras.
j) 1746-1748 A.D.: I Carnatic War.
k) 1749-1754 A.D.: II Carnatic War.
l) 1754 A.D.: The conflict between french and the British came to an end
m) 1756 A.D.: Back Hole tragedy
n) 1757 A.D.: The Battle of Passey.
o) 1758-1763 A.D.: III Carnatic War.
p) 1765 A.D.: Robert Clive introduce Dual government
q) 1764 A.D.: The Battle of Buxar.
r) 1767 A.D.: Robert Clive returned to England